An oscilloscope is defined as an instrument used for visualizing the electrical voltages and their trajectory on a display. The electrical function generator makes it possible to gather electric quantities, usually visible in a real-time display. For that purpose, a two-dimensional representation is given of the measured quantity in the form of an oscillo-gram. A dimensional axis is represented by time and a second dimensional axis is represented by an electrical quantity of a reference waveform graph in a co-ordinated system. The horizontal „X- axis“ showing time and the vertical „Y axis „showing voltages are displayed. The resulting image is finally called an oscillo-gram.
The advantage of using this device over other instruments is due to the fact that the waveform is depicted. This causes overlays which are immediately recognizable as frequencies or other irregularities to the viewer. The only disadvantage of an oscilloscope with a function generator over other similar equipment is the prerequisite skills required to operator or control them. This refers primarily to the evaluation of sums as the identification of the image must first be evaluated – a figure that is represented in the oscilloscope which is normally quite cumbersome in other models.
The construction of the oscilloscope is characterized by functions performed by a thermionic cathode; by applying a negative voltage relative to the anode causing the discharge of electrons. They are accelerated into an evacuated space by the electric field present and sent towards the cathode. By including a function generator in the oscilloscope, it is possible for a three-dimensional focusing to be achieved. For this reason, between the cathode and anode a negatively charged hollow cylinder, also known as „Wehnelt cylinder“, is positioned. By doing this, the electrons are accelerated by a pair of capacitor plates, which usually sends them straight by deflecting them. The deflection is proportional in each direction to the applied voltage. The electrons are collected by a screen which then allows for a graphical representation for the ratio of the voltages.
Additionally, the equipped function generator in the oscilloscope makes it possible to gather data from pure stress ratios in order to draw time-dependent voltage functions. Many of the function generators also feature a dual-beam setting that allows the representation of two stress functions as a function of time.
There is a difference between an analog oscilloscope and a digital oscilloscope. An analog oscilloscope uses a cathode ray tube display, however; over time the digital oscilloscope devices almost completely replaced the analog devices on the market. This is mainly due to practical disadvantages such as the size of the cathode ray tubes as well as economic factors. These days, they are only used in smaller laboratories as well as for training in technical schools. The digital oscilloscope is increasingly common which uses an analog-digital conversion function. They are known principally as storage oscilloscopes as they provide data which can be saved or transferred to a computer.